Saturday, May 23, 2020

Leadership Style Of The Company Essay - 1986 Words

Most companies and organizations have members of their senior executives that take on more than their role as an executive but are also the organizational leader for the company. They are the type of person that works to mold the company into the image that they want for it by being a role model for the behaviors and characteristics that will help achieve organizational goals. Leadership styles are different, and many of the best leaders have their own unique style that they use to inspire others to do their best in whatever capacity the company needs them in. Not all managers or executives can be seen as leaders, and some senior executives may have a leadership style that actually has a negative impact on the company as a whole, but usually in order for the company to be profitable and excel, this type of leadership should not be able to last long or should be balanced by other better leaders within the company. The COO or Chief Operating Officer at a previous organization had a very charismatic presence. He was the type of leader that made an employee want to â€Å"do good† on any project that they would work on for him. His leadership style could be described as consultative. According to DuBrin (2011), â€Å"Consultative leaders confer with group members before making a decision. However, they retain the final authority to make decisions† (p. 123). This was probably one of his biggest strengths as an executive and leader of the company because he made the employeesShow MoreRelatedLeadership Style Of A New Company1314 Words   |  6 PagesWhen a new executive or manager takes charge of an existing company it is common for them to inherit a business that is established but encountering lack luster performance because of the lack of leadership or the wrong style of leadership. The leader is the most significant role within an organization that drives the success or failure of the company. Their own particular leadership style may pr oduce positive results or hamper productivity. No two leaders are alike and no two employees are exactlyRead MoreLeadership Style at Coca-Cola Company5663 Words   |  23 PagesLeadership Style at Coca-Cola Company - May 4th, 2011 ________________________________________ The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is a beverage retailer, manufacturer and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. The company is best known for its flagship product Coca-Cola, invented by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in 1886. The Coca-Cola formula and brand was bought in 1889 by Asa Candler who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. Besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage, Coca-ColaRead MoreThe Leadership Style Of The Company Of Netflix And A Number Of Not- For- Profit Companies1767 Words   |  8 Pagesphilanthropist and entrepreneur, is known for serving over the boards of Facebook, CEO of Netflix and a number of not- for- profit companies. In the year 1997, Marc Randolph and Hastings contributed in co-founding Netflix that offers film rental- by- mail at a flat rate or price to the customers in the entire United States of America. With the headquarters in California, the company of Netflix has been amassing a collection of more than 44 million subscrib ers for almost 100,000 titles. Hastings is knownRead MoreDifferent Styles Of Leadership Quality Company Culture865 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Each company has beliefs and values defining it. A company culture determines how employees and customers perceive the company, client treatment and how the company should react to various changes in the environment. An organizational culture is a mirror of the company leadership. Different styles of leadership ensure maintenance of various corporation cultures. The climate within an organization determines a company’s financial performance. A quality company culture integrates eachRead MoreLeadership Styles Of The Multi Billion Dollar Company971 Words   |  4 PagesLeadership is one of the most useful skills one can obtain. It was believed that leadership couldn’t be taught, but that one is born with the appropriate skills to lead. Leaders come in a wide range of different personalities and styles. There have been many great leaders since the beginning of human existence. The great question of what makes an effective leader continues to be one that can be debated. M any theories have been formed about how leaders have been either made or born with the traitRead MoreLeadership Styles Of The Abc Golf Management Company, Inc.1443 Words   |  6 PagesMAN 4120 Research Paper Outline TOPIC: Leadership Styles in __________ Organization. I. The Organization chosen is†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. A. Type of Organization B. Responsibilities C. Organizational Structure and chart II. Introduce problems, issues, weaknesses, or threats relating to organizational leadership. III. Discuss different leadership perspectives/theories and leadership styles based on some core theories learned from the textbook. IV. Use other sources such as peer journals and text books to further describeRead MoreThe s Leadership Style And Its Impact On Ch2m Hill Company Essay890 Words   |  4 Pagesto make CH2M Hill one of the best run companies in the world. The essence of this research paper is to give Hinman’s leadership style and its impact on CH2M Hill Company. In this regard, it depicts her role as a transformational leader at the company I currently work for. Thesis statement: The incorporation of transformational and participative leadership has made CH2M Hill one of the best managed global corporations. Jacqueline Hinman joined CH2M Hill Company in 1988 as a veteran and quickly climbedRead MoreCoca Cola s Leadership And Management Style Of The Company1329 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The Coca-Cola Company is a global company which manufactures, distributes and markets a range of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. It currently markets over 500 brands and 3,500 products and owns four of the top five non-alcoholic beverages in the world: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. These products are manufactured and distributed through a network of distribution and bottling partners. They are a multi-billion-dollar company who operate a franchised distributionRead MoreAlan Mullaly: Ford Motor Company Ceo Leadership Style2145 Words   |  9 PagesAlan Mulally, CEO, Ford Motor Company Mike Stout Strayer University Abstract This paper discusses the role of leadership and how an organizations performance is impacted by leadership and leadership development. The paper discussed Alan Mulally’s leadership styles and gives examples of how Mulally’s actions fit those leadership styles. The paper talks of how Ford Motor Company’s performance is impacted by Alan Mulally’s goal setting. The paper speaks to how Mulally’s communication openness impactsRead MoreThe Autocratic And Participative Leadership Styles Impact Company Culture, And Conflict Resolution1175 Words   |  5 Pagesparticipative leadership styles impacts company culture, and conflict resolution. At the core of leadership, is how individuals in an organization are rewarded and punished (Nwibere, 2013). Two very successful autocratic leaders are Steve Jobs of Apple, and Jack Ma of the Chinese company Alibaba (Allen, 2011; Shao, 2014). James Parker, CEO of Southwest Airlines during the 9/11 attacks is cited as a great participatory leader (Advice America, 2015). This paper discusses how each style shapes company culture

Monday, May 18, 2020

Eating Disorders The Secret Battle Of College Campuses

Eating Disorders: The Secret Battle of College Campuses Growing up, people are bombarded with societal ideals about how they should look and ways that they should act. Everyday, people are exposed to hundreds of ideas of what people perceive as beautiful as portrayed in television or commercial advertisements, printed ads, billboards, and online. Since people are constantly being exposed to these ideas, it is only natural that after time it will begin to impact people’s lives in some way. While some people feel this pressure more than others, a time in a person’s life where they are especially vulnerable to developing body issues is college. For many people college is the first time where they are away from the home for the first and must make new friends. College students are particularly susceptible to developing issues because of how exciting this new time is in one person’s life. For these young adults, the new independence, increased workload, homesickness, and desire to succeed in their new surroundings puts unsolicited pressure on them that they have never experienced before. Suddenly, the pressure of having a slim hourglass figure, perfectly styled hair, and impeccably manicured nails are influential in ways that one may not have thought before. The stigma with college students and their eating habits is that most people eat a diet filled with ramen noodles, microwaveable dinners, and excessive amounts of coffee. Traditionally, the thought of college eatingShow MoreRelatedEating Disorders Are Becoming A Serious Problem On High School And College Students944 Words   |  4 Pagesoutbreak of mental disorders seen predominately in high school and college students, especially anorexia nervosa. Individuals suffering from this mental health disorder are not fully aware of the severe symptoms and risk factors this disorder brings, or the treatment available to them. Stigmatization and from friends, family and society like self infliction and addiction lead to an internal battle for a person suffering with anorexia. According to the Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, â€Å"40%Read MoreThe Fat Girl By Dubus1896 Words   |  8 Pageseloquent treatment of sensitive topics such as eating disorders. Whether it is known or not, eating disorders are very prevalent in our society. In fact, eating disorders are the most common psychological disorder in our society to date. But why such prevalence now? Well, we can find the answer all around us, in fact, we are being bombarded by imagery every day the effects several eating disorders. Family, friends and society all affect eating disorders prevalence in today’s society. As the readerRead MoreEating Disorders and Free Essays8687 Words   |  35 Pagesï » ¿2 = 2 dfhnmxpd h Free Essays Home | Search Essays | FAQ | Guarantees | Privacy | Lost Essay? | Contact Search Results eating disorder Free Essays Unrated Essays Better Essays Stronger Essays Powerful Essays Term Papers Research Papers Search by keyword: Sort By: Your search returned over 400 essays for eating disorder. To narrow your search results, please add more search terms to your query. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [Next ] These results are sorted by most relevantRead More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pagesleadership development. How did this experience highlight yourstrengths and weaknesses asa leader? This question may appear quite daunting. Bydefault many applicants first think about their most significant accomplishments. If you have led troops in battle or started a nonprofit, you may think you have this essay in the bag.That is the first trap of this subtle question. A defining experience is not necessarily one that results in achievement relative to peers. In fact, some of the strongest essaysfocusRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesAsk your local representative for details! Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live events, and view resources Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of HumanRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesScience? â€Å"Power Helps Leaders Perform Better† 392 Point/Counterpoint Heroes Are Made, Not Born 398 Questions for Review 399 Experiential Exercise What Is a Leader? 399 Ethical Dilemma Undercover Leaders 399 Case Incident 1 Leadership Mettle Forged in Battle 400 Case Incident 2 Leadership Factories 400 13 Power and Politics 411 A Definition of Power 412 Contrasting Leadership and Power 413 Bases of Power 414 Formal Power 414 †¢ Personal Power 415 †¢ Which Bases of Power Are Most Effective? 416Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesSupplement A SKILL LEARNING 592 Making Oral and Written Presentations 592 Essential Elements of Effective Presentations 593 SKILL PRACTICE 609 Exercises for Making Effective Oral and Written Presentations Speaking as a Leader 609 Quality Circles at Battle Creek Foods 610 609 Supplement B CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS 619 SKILL LEARNING 620 Planning and Conducting Interviews 620 Specific Types of Organizational Interviews 629 SKILL PRACTICE 634 Exercises for Conducting Special-Purpose InterviewsRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesManagement Course: MBA−10 General Management California College for Health Sciences MBA Program McGraw-Hill/Irwin abc McGraw−Hill Primis ISBN: 0−390−58539−4 Text: Effective Behavior in Organizations, Seventh Edition Cohen Harvard Business Review Finance Articles The Power of Management Capital Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum International Management, Sixth Edition Hodgetts−Luthans−Doh Contemporary Management, Fourth Edition Jones−George Driving Shareholder Value Morin−Jarrell Leadership

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Is Race a Natural Kind - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1610 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2018/12/18 Category Science Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? Introduction Natural kind forms a scientific discipline that is frequently divided to derive the actual meaning. Majorly, the scientific study offers two perceptive, one that entails the naturalness of a kind and the kindhood. The naturalness of a kind tries to establish whether the naturalness of a kind is what makes it natural. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Is Race a Natural Kind?" essay for you Create order On the other hand, the kindhood offers a different understanding in that it entails finding out whether the components that make up a thing is what makes it natural (Porcher 2016, 212). However, in consideration of both studies, the naturalness of an element corresponds to the structure of the natural environment, and not on the human interests and actions. Therefore, it is by logical assumption that science has succeeded in revealing all the natural occurrences whereas the classification and the taxonomies are all by scientific realism. As a result, psychology can easily reverse on the kinds that it holds as natural. Therefore, there is a significant connectedness between the study of natural kinds and realism. The realistic position on natural kinds In this regard, realism refers to the view of the existence of entities in natural kinds. On the other hand, naturalism refers to the presence of natural groupings with distinctions among them. Therefore, naturalism has no ontological commitment while realism is an ontologically committed type of view. Notably, the realistic position maintains on the fact that it is not possible to explain the differences between the natural and the non-natural groupings without considering entities in natural kinds. (Franklin-Hall and Laura 2015, 928) Different theories on natural kinds exist and efficiently compete to offer a well-developed concept. Firstly, the cluster of natural kinds is usually developed according to similar objectives and common properties which form a single group. It is challenging to determine a natural kind in realism as opposed to conventional. Therefore, a suitable way to draw an appropriate distinction is through the similarities and the standard features while the later majorly depends on the human interests. Secondly, natural kinds are believed to have essences. According to (Magnus 2015, 7), essence refers to a membership-determining a given property which is not only necessary but also sufficient enough to belong to a specific group. However, the theories fail to agree on the way essential characteristics in a kind. Whereas, the fundamental properties are responsible for other features associated with the type. For instance, having an atomic number 79 makes something a member of a particular group. However, there are other properties regarding color, mass and density. Phenotypical features are sufficient to pick out a natural kind Evidently, contemporary philosophers in the field of biology held for the longest time that biological species are insufficient to be regarded as natural kinds. However, organic features, for instance, phenotypical features are sufficient enough to pick out a natural kind (Marti ­nez 2015, 99). As a result, incorporation of biological characteristics in natural kind offers an in-depth understanding of natural kinds. Notably, it provides that natural kind involves the cases of spatiotemporally of which are not accidental and resemble each other to form a whole species. Majorly, the controversy regarding the biological aspect and the natural kind occurs due to lack of documentation of any limitation concerning the point in place and time where the natural kind happened. However, instances of any natural kind could occur anywhere and at any time. Therefore, a biological perspective of the natural kind offers a standardized characterization. It defines the natural sort as a collection of objects or individuals with similar properties non-accidentally clustered together. Evidently, biological species are also natural kinds. For any organic classification, there is a plurality of traits, phenotypic or genotypic. The attributes play a critical role individually and collectively (Kidwell and Kimberlee, et al. 2015, 29). As a result, their input in such a species is necessary and sufficient. It universally agreed that phenotypic traits are natural kinds. However, one reason that claims it unreasonable is the dimorphism. Notably, in every species, there are abnormal or aberrant members who phenotypic traits are the actual reflection of confined genotypic variations. Indeed, it is evident that biological species are among the natural kinds. Their instances happen to be scattered in space and in time, therefore a typical example in which a collection of cases join together to develop one common reason. A substitute for what picks out the natural kind The similarity relations majorly determine the spontaneous nature. The connections, however, have been defined differently based on their branch of science. For instance, the subject will establish the similarity based on the field they operate. Notably, biology is expected to identify the similarities between the organisms found in the genealogical information or common genes. Therefore, apart from phenotypical classification, the similarities can be reduced to an allele (1000 Genomes Project Consortium 2015, 70). In this regard, some organisms will be more genetically similar. This would drop out resemblance as a genetic concept to a more specific notion; determine the similarity in molecules and genes. Evidently, any similarity between the constituents conforms to the idea of the natural kind. In this regard, nature kind classification based on the allele or the genetic concepts enables appropriate classification. Additionally, it allows getting rid of the many paradigms in the natural kinds which do not count as physical kinds. For instance, the private allele in Native Americans is a pattern in the population genetics natural kind. However, an individual allele offers uniqueness in one of the populations from the entire selection of communities. Therefore, the presence of the Native American society determines the existence of the private allele. Provide at least one objection to the realist position The realistic stand has been for the longest time suffered a complaint from the anti-realist. The antirealism holds a contradicting view in stipulating that theories are untrue and the majority ought to be disregarded. Evidently, the realistic position provides that oak is a natural kind, while a table is not. Therefore, whenever the question to determine what makes natural and non-natural nature, then no answer. As a result, it has proven challenging to develop responses to so, vital clues regarding the natural kind. Currently, developing the answers to the simple questions is yet to be achieved. According to Ludwig (2017, 35), he has given up on the term natural since so far; there is nothing like natural. According to antirealist, they consider that realists generalize all classes of natural kinds and capture a general philosophical advantage of natural kinds. Additionally, they attract natural types in such a manner that they avoid metaphysics. Notably, some of the most significant theories, for instance, Newtons laws have been proved wrong. Additionally, Darwins natural selection and relativity by Einstein still need some modification and develop some adaptation to make them appropriate (Garci ­a del Muro Navarro 2017, 29). Therefore, antirealists strongly believe that theories are merely tools of which people use after being approved to be wrong. According to antirealists, most of what them think to be the cause of the world based on the minds ability to create precise features or offer characteristics on what they perceive. Why realism about race is better than conventionalism Notably, there nothing in particular that makes a natural kind natural. However, some philosophers have denied this assumption and insisted that a natural kind is relative to a specific inquiry. Therefore, race lacks any biological contradictions between members of other races (Winther 2014, 215). As a result, it may be untrue to conclude that race is not a natural kind. Realism refers to that position attributed to positive ontological status. So when one is a realist about the race, that means the race is real and contains several physical attributes. On the other hand, conventionalist is not constant. Humans are not genetically grounded, however; they usually form due to social practices. Hence, races are adopted based on some broad genetic dissimilarity among some populations. Moreover, the color creates only an outward manifestation. As a result, the realism stand about race is more convincing unlike conventionalism. In conclusion, natural kind forms a scientific discipline that is frequently divided to derive the actual meaning. Majorly, the scientific study offers two perceptive, one that entails the naturalness of a kind and the kindhood. Notably, the realistic position on natural kinds provides that it is not possible to explain the differences between the natural and the non-natural groupings without considering entities in natural kinds. Therefore, a suitable way to draw an appropriate distinction is through the similarities and the standard features. Moreover, phenotypical features are sufficient enough to pick out a natural kind. As a result, incorporation of biological characteristics in natural kind offers an in-depth understanding of natural kinds. Nature kind classification based on the allele or the genetic concepts enables appropriate classification offer a suitable substitute what picks natural kind. Majorly, anti-realist offers the major objection to realist and consider majority of the theories as untrue. However, when one is a realist about the race, that means the race is real and contains several physical attributes. Works Cited 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature 526.7571 (2015): 68-74. Franklin-Hall, Laura R. Natural kinds as categorical bottlenecks. Philosophical Studies 172.4 (2015): 925-948. Garci ­a del Muro Navarro, Juan. The Evolution of Ecosystems through Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks. (2017).24-41 Kidwell, Kimberlee Kae, et al. Glyphosate-tolerant wheat genotypes. U.S. Patent No. 8,927,834. 6 Jan. 2015.7-24 Ludwig, David. Letting go ofNatural Kind. Towards a Multidimensional Framework of Non-Arbitrary Classification Philosophy of Science. (2017). 34-66 Magnus, P. D. Taxonomy, ontology, and natural kinds. Synthese (2015): 1-13. Martinez, Manolo. Informationally-connected property clusters, and polymorphism. Biology Philosophy 30.1 (2015): 99-117. Porcher, Jose Eduardo. Delusion as a folk psychological kind. Filosofia Unisinos? 17.2 (2016): 212. Winther, Rasmus Grinfeldt. The Genetic Reification of Race?: A Story of Two Mathematical Methods. Critical Philosophy of Race 2.2 (2014): 204-223.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

High School Vs. College - 1236 Words

Name: Oriyomi Kuku ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­ Instructor s Name: Bishakha Mukherji Course: English 1301 Due Date: 22 October 201 High school vs. College Having a great education is the best legacy in life. It is a proven fact. This accomplishment requires moving on from high school, as well as from college. Moving from high school to college might be an energizing change, yet it is additionally an exceptionally troublesome one. It is a test that the understudy will battle with and in the end change in accordance with after some time. Despite the fact that there are numerous contrasts between high school and college, one ought not to believe that they are tow totally unique universes. They have their similarities, as well. A few differences between high†¦show more content†¦Classes, for the most part, have close to 35 understudies. You may think about outside class as meager as 0 to 2 hours per week, and this might be for the most part a minute ago test arrangement. You at times need to peruse much else besides once, and now and again tuning in class is sufficient. You are required to peruse short assignments that are then ex amined, and regularly re-instructed, in class. Then again, succeeding in college classes, the scholarly year is partitioned into two separate 15-week semesters. In addition, to seven days after every semester for exams. Classes may number 100 understudies or all the more, likewise you have to learn no less than 2 to 3 hours outside of class for every hour in class. As an undergrad, you have to survey class notes and content material routinely; you are doled out generous measures of perusing and composing which may not be straightforwardly tended to in class. Another differences is about high school and college educators. High teachers check your finished homework, help you to remember your deficient work and approach you in case they trust you require help. Instructors in high school are regularly accessible for discussion sometime recently, amid, or after class. They have been prepared in instructing techniques to help with conferring learning to understudies, and furthermore, furn ish you with the data you missed when you were truant from class. High schoolShow MoreRelatedCollege Vs. High School858 Words   |  4 PagesCollege Vs. High School Some may think that high school and college reading and writing are similar and that it’s just the next level up but it s not, they differentiate in many ways. College reading and writing is more than that, it’s a completely different world when compared to high school. It’s much more advanced and complexed. Some ideas that can be compared are the way we annotate, understand text, assignment topics, the depth of research, and so on. This is important to understanding howRead MoreHigh School Vs. College873 Words   |  4 PagesHigh School Vs. College The transition from high school to college is not only an exciting challenge, but also a great milestone in one’s life. High school and college both share the common goal of expanding students’ knowledge; however, there are many differences between high school and college. They are similar in such ways that you still have to go to class, do class work, take test, and study hard. They differ because in college one is taking on an entire new load of responsibility and optionsRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1149 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Grunow Writing 1010 October 26, 2015 High School vs. College Graduating from high school is what every student is looking forward to. However, going to college is a big accomplishment for all students. The first day of freshman high school and college feels the same, the excitement and pressured. As many students experienced, both high school and college could be compared their similarities. First, both students in college and high school are expected to behave in well mannered, attendRead MoreCollege Vs. High School938 Words   |  4 PagesWelcome to college! Congratulations on making it this far! Now the time comes to ramp up the ante! No such program as stepping up to college exists as it does for for high school. Oh wait! It’s called high school. Move it or lose it now, your future rests on your shoulders. High school teachers just handed you your future based on the way you schooled, and college professors tell you to figure it out. College trips up hundreds of students a year, refrain from letting yourself become one ofRe ad MoreHigh School Vs. College1217 Words   |  5 PagesHigh School vs. College In the America, children begin school around the age of six. Once a student enters elementary school, most stay there for five to six years before they go on to secondary school, which involves middle school and high school. After graduating high school some students go on to pursue a â€Å"higher education† through college, but any further schooling after high school is no longer mandatory. In the professional world it is becoming harder and harder for high school students toRead MoreHigh School Vs. College923 Words   |  4 PagesEng. 110-48 31 August 2015 High School Vs. College High school and college are both higher education institutions that enlighten students; however, there are many differences between the two that make them both unique. In high school, the goal is to gain a broad understanding of numerous subjects so that when they arrive to college, they have an understanding of their interests, goals, dreams, and what it takes to pursue their potential career. High school works as a place for students toRead MoreHigh School Vs. 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Students in college have variety of classes to choose from and freedom,etc. This could be freedom from parents or just doing whatever you want without parents barking at you, because you are now an adult. Even though I have been in college for only a semesterRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1294 Words   |  6 PagesHigh School Versus College Schools are undoubtedly important to one’s education. The most important of those schools are high schools and colleges because they have the most impact on deciding what occupation a student wants to pursue. Although high schools and colleges share similarities in providing education, there are also many differences between each other. In both high schools and colleges there are teachers that educate students on certain subjects. Those subjects can range from mathematicsRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1434 Words   |  6 Pagespeople believe that transitioning from a High School environment to a College environment is arduous, others believe it is effortless. High School and College both require teachers and work, but they both have differences that many people are not aware of. People will say that college and High School are similar because they both require effort for one to pass, but what they do not realize is the amount of effort which is necessary for each. With High School, teachers give students busy work that will

Demand Forecasting and Production Planning Free Essays

string(51) " bottleneck stage due to its long processing time\." ScienceAsia 27 (2001) : 271-278 Demand Forecasting and Production Planning for Highly Seasonal Demand Situations: Case Study of a Pressure Container Factory Pisal Yenradeea,*, Anulark Pinnoib and Amnaj Charoenthavornyingb a Industrial Engineering Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Patumtani 12121, Thailand. b Industrial Systems Engineering Program, School of Advanced Technologies, Asian Institute of Technology, P. O. We will write a custom essay sample on Demand Forecasting and Production Planning or any similar topic only for you Order Now Box 4, Klong Luang, Patumtani 12120, Thailand. * Corresponding author, E-mail: pisal@siit. tu. ac. th Received 24 May 2001 Accepted 27 Jul 2001 ABSTRACT This paper addresses demand forecasting and production planning for a pressure container factory in Thailand, where the demand patterns of individual product groups are highly seasonal. Three forecasting models, namely, Winter’s, decomposition, and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), are applied to forecast the product demands. The results are compared with those obtained by subjective and intuitive judgements (which is the current practice). It is found that the decomposition and ARIMA models provide lower forecast errors in all product groups. As a result, the safety stock calculated based on the errors of these two models is considerably less than that of the current practice. The forecasted demand and safety stock are subsequently used as inputs to determine the production plan that minimizes the total overtime and inventory holding costs based on a fixed workforce level and an available overtime. The production planning problem is formulated as a linear programming model whose decision variables include production quantities, inventory levels, and overtime requirements. The results reveal that the total costs could be reduced by 13. % when appropriate forecasting models are applied in place of the current practice. KEYWORDS: demand forecasting, highly seasonal demand, ARIMA method, production planning, linear programming, pressure container factory. INTRODUCTION Most manufacturing companies in developing countries determine product demand forecasts and production plans using subjective and intuitive judgments. This may be one factor that leads to production inefficiency. An accuracy of the demand forecast significantly affects safety stock and inventory levels, inventory holding costs, and customer service levels. When the demand is highly seasonal, it is unlikely that an accurate forecast can be obtained without the use of an appropriate forecasting model. The demand forecast is one among several critical inputs of a production planning process. When the forecast is inaccurate, the obtained production plan will be unreliable, and may result in over- or understock problems. To avoid them, a suitable amount of safety stock must be provided, which requires additional investment in inventory and results in an increased inventory holding costs. In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, systematic demand forecasting and production planning methods are proposed in this paper. A case study of a pressure container factory in Thailand is presented to demonstrate how the methods can be developed and implemented. This study illustrates that an improvement of demand forecasts and a reduction of total production costs can be achieved when the systematic demand forecasting and production planning methods are applied. The demand forecasting and production planning methods are proposed in the next section. The background of the case study, including, products, production process, and the forecasting and production planning procedures being used in the factory, are briefly described in Section 3. The detailed analyses of the forecasting methods and the production planning method are explained in Section 4 and Section 5, respectively. Finally, the discussion and conclusion are presented in Section 6. 272 ScienceAsia 27 (2001) P ROPOSED D EMAND F ORECASTING PRODUCTION PLANNING METHODS AND The proposed demand forecasting and production planning methods are depicted in a step-by-step fashion in Fig. . Most factories produce a variety of products that can be categorized into product groups or families. Individual products in the same product group generally have some common characteristics. For example, they may have the same demand pattern and a relatively stable product mix. As a result, it is possible to forecast the aggregate demand of the product group first, and then disaggregate it in to the demand of individual products. Since the forecast of the aggregate demand is more accurate than that of the individual demand1, it is initially determined in Step 1. Then the demands of individual products are determined in Step 2 by multiplying the aggregate demand with the corresponding product mix that is normally known and quite constant. Since the demand forecasts are always subject to forecast errors, safety stocks are provided to avoid stock-out problems. Based on the standard deviation of the forecast errors and the required service level, the safety stocks for individual products are determined in Step 3. Production planning decisions are so complicated and important that they should not be subjectively and intuitively made. Consequently, an appropriate production planning model should be formulated to determine the optimal decisions. With this model, its parameters, eg, demand forecasts, safety stocks, holding cost, overtime cost, machine capacity, inventory capacity, and available regular time and overtime, are entered or updated (Step 4). In step 5, the optimal decisions regarding the production quantities, inventory levels, and regular production time and overtime for each product in each production stage are obtained by solving the production planning model. Step 6 indicates that only the optimal production plan of the current month will be implemented. After one month has elapsed, the demand forecasts and the production plan will be revised (by repeating Steps 1 to 5) according to a rolling horizon concept. BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY The pressure container factory manufactures 15 products, ranging from 1. 25 to 50 kg of the capacity of pressurized gas. The products are divided into eight product groups, namely, Group 1 to Group 8. The first six groups have only two components, â€Å"head† and â€Å"bottom†, while the last two groups have three components, â€Å"head†, â€Å"bottom†, and â€Å"body†. The production process can be divided into five stages as shown in Fig. 2. Stage 3 is only required to produce the products having three components (ie, those in Groups 7 and 8). Stage 4, the circumference welding, is found to be a bottleneck stage due to its long processing time. You read "Demand Forecasting and Production Planning" in category "Papers" Presently monthly demand forecasts are subjectively determined by the Marketing Department based on past sales and expected future market conditions. No systematic method is used in forecasting. Using these forecasts and other constraints, such as availability of raw materials, equipment, and production capacity, the monthly production plan for a three-month period is intuitively determined without considering any cost factor. This results in inaccurate demand forecasts and, subsequently, an inefficient production plan. Stage 1 Blanking 1) Forecast the monthly demands of each product group throughout the planning horizon of 12 months 2) Determine the demand for each individual product 3) Determine the safety stock for each individual product Stage 2 Forming of bottom and head Stage 3 Forming of body 4) Update the parameters in the production planning model Stage 4 Circumference welding 5) Run the planning model to obtain the optimal planning dicisions ) Roll the plan by repeating Steps 1 to 5 after one month has elapsed Stage 5 Finishing Fig 1. Proposed forecasting and planning steps. Fig 2. The production process to manufacture a pressure container. ScienceAsia 27 (2001) 273 FORECASTING METHODS Steps 1, 2, and 3 of the proposed forecasting and planning process are discussed in detail in this section. Firstly, the aggregate demand forecasts of eight product groups throughout the planning horizon of 12 mont hs will be determined. Secondly, the demand forecasts of the product groups will be disaggregated into those of individual product. Thirdly, the safety stocks of individual product will be calculated based on the forecast error. Aggregate Demand Forecasts of Product Groups The typical demand pattern of each product group is seasonal. As an example, Fig. 3 shows the demand pattern of Product Group 3. Thus, three forecasting models that are suitable for making seasonal demand forecasts are considered. They are Winter’s, decomposition and Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models. 2-5 Because of their simplicity, the Winter’s and decomposition models are initially used to forecast the aggregate demand of each product group. If the Winter’s and decomposition models are inadequate (ie, the forecast errors are not random), the ARIMA model which is more complicated and perhaps more efficient will be applied. The Winter’s model has three smoothing parameters that significantly affect the accuracy of the forecasts. These parameters are varied at many levels using a computer program to determine a set of parameters that give the least forecast errors. There are two types of the decomposition model, namely, multiplicative and additive types. The former is selected since the demand pattern shows that the trend and seasonal components are dependent. The forecast errors of the Winter’s and decomposition models are presented in Table 1. Based on the calculated mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), it is seen that the decomposition model has lower Original Series (x 1000) 16 forecast errors in all product groups than the Winter’s model. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that the decomposition model provides better demand forecasts than the other. One way to check whether the forecasting model is adequate is to evaluate the randomness of the forecast errors. The auto-correlation coefficient functions (ACFs) of the errors from the decomposition model for several time lags at the significant level of 0. 05 of each product group are determined. The ACFs of Groups 1 and 3 are presented as examples in Fig. 4 and 5, respectively. The ACFs of Groups 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are similar to those of Group 1 in Table 1. Forecast errors of the Winter’s and decomposition models. MSE Products MAPE (%) Winter’s Decomposition Winter’s Decomposition 9,879,330 4,363,290 2,227,592 4,507,990 10,039,690 574,108 636,755 883,811 36. 14 48. 94 24. 25 30. 08 18. 80 53. 86 61. 99 46. 52 26. 97 31. 86 15. 97 23. 4 13. 14 34. 80 34. 45 28. 76 Group 1 16,855,149 Group 2 8,485,892 Group 3 5,433,666 Group 4 6,035,466 Group 5 23,030,657 Group 6 1,690,763 Group 7 2,034,917 Group 8 1,884,353 Estimated Autocorrelations 1 0. 5 coefficient 0 -0. 5 -1 0 4 8 lag 12 16 20 Fig 4. ACFs of the residuals from the decomposition model for Group 1. Estimated Autocorrel ations 1 0. 5 16 demand 3 coefficient 0 8 -0. 5 4 -1 0 0 10 20 30 time index 40 50 60 0 4 8 lag 12 16 20 Fig 3. Actual demand of Group 3. Fig 5. ACFs of the residuals from the decomposition model for Group 3. 274 ScienceAsia 27 (2001) Fig 4, while those of Groups 2 and 3 are similar. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the ACFs of all lags are within the upper and lower limits, meaning that the errors are random. However, the ACF of lag 1 in Fig. 5 exceeds the upper limit. This indicates that auto-correlations do exist in the errors and that the errors are not random. From the ACFs, we can conclude that the decomposition model is adequate for forecasting the demands of Groups 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, but inadequate for forecasting those of Groups 2 and 3. Therefore, the ARIMA model is applied to Groups 2 and 3. From the original time series of the demand of Group 3 (in Fig. 3), and the ACFs of its original series (in Fig. ), it can be interpreted that the original series has a trend, and a high value of ACF of lag 12 indicates the existence of seasonality. 2 Hence, a non-seasonal first-difference to remove the trend and a seasonal first-difference to remove the strong seasonal spikes in the ACFs are tested. Fig. 7 shows the ACFs of the ARIMA (p,1,q)(P,1,Q) 12 model afte r applying the first difference. The nonseasonal plot indicates that there is an exponential decay and one significant ACF of lag 2. Thus, the AR(1) and MA(1) process denoted by ARIMA (1,1,1)(0,1,0)12 is identified. The ACFs of the residuals after applying this ARIMA model shown in Fig. reveals that there is a high value of ACF of lag 12. Therefore, the AR(1) and MA(1) process for the seasonal part or ARIMA (1,1,1)(1,1,1)12 can be identified. The ACFs of the residuals generated from this model are shown in Fig. 9. Since all ACFs are within the two significant limits, the ARIMA (1,1,1)(1,1,1)12 model is adequate. Using the Statgraphic program, the model coefficients can be determined. The demand forecast for Group 3 is presented in Eq. 1. Ft = 1. 197 X t ? 1 ? 0. 197 X t ? 2 + 0. 54408 X t ? 12 ? 0. 65126 X t ? 13 + 0. 10718 X t ? 14 + 0. 45592 X t ? 24 ? 0. 54574 X t ? 25 + 0. 08982 X t ? 26 ? 1. 6699et ? 1 ? 0. 7154et ? 12 + 0. 76332et ? 13 + 29. 34781 (1) where Ft is the demand fo recast for period t Xt is the actual demand for period t et is the forecast error for period t Similarly, the forecasting model for Group 2 is ARIMA (3,0,0)(3,0,0). 12 The demand forecast of Group 2 is presented in Eq. 2. Estimated Autocorrelations for Original Series 1 Estimated Residual ACF 1 0. 5 0. 5 coefficient coefficient 0 0 -0. 5 -0. 5 -1 0 5 10 lag 15 20 25 -1 0 5 10 lag 15 20 25 Fig 6. ACFs of the actual demand for Group 3. Fig 8. ACFs of the residuals of ARIMA (1,1,1)(0,1,0)12 model for Group 3. Estimated Residual ACF 1 Estimated Autocorrelations for 1 Nonseasonal Differences 1 Seasonal Differences 1 0. 5 0. 5 coefficient coefficient 0 0 -0. 5 -0. 5 -1 0 5 10 lag 15 20 25 -1 0 5 10 lag 15 20 25 Fig 7. ACFs after first differencing for Group 3. Fig 9. ACFs of the residuals of ARIMA (1,1,1)(1,1,1)12 model for Group 3. ScienceAsia 27 (2001) 275 Ft = 0. 36951X t? 1 + 0. 30695X t? 2 – 0. 18213X t? 3 + 0. 20132 X t? 12 ? 0. 07439 X t? 13 ? 0. 06180 X 14 + 0. 03667 X t? 15 ? 0. 03325X t? 24 + 0. 01228 X t? 25 + 0. 01021X t? 26 ? 0. 00606 X t? 27 + 0. 68660 X t? 36 ? 0. 25371X t? 37 ? 0. 21075X t? 38 + 0. 12505X t? 39 + 354. 4515 2) The forecast errors of the decomposition and ARIMA models for Groups 2 and 3 are presented in Table 2. It reveals that the ARIMA model has lower Table 2. Forecast errors of the decomposition and ARIMA models. MSE Products Group 2 Group 3 Decomposition ARIMA 4,363,290 2,227,592 3,112,974 1,235,788 MAPE (%) Decomposition ARIMA 31. 86 15. 97 29. 05 13. 18 MSE and MAPE than t he decomposition model. Therefore, the ARIMA model should be used to forecast the aggregate demands of Groups 2 and 3. For other product groups, however, the decomposition model should be used because it is more simple yet still adequate. The comparison of the demand forecast errors obtained from the forecasting models and those from the current practice of the marketing department (as presented in Table 3) indicates that the errors of the forecasting models are substantially lower than those of the current practice. Demand Forecasts of Individual Products The demand forecast of product i for period t, dit, is obtained by multiplying the aggregate demand forecast of the product group (obtained from the previous steps) by the corresponding product mix (as presented in Table 4). Table 3. Forecast errors of the current practice, decomposition, and ARIMA models. MSE Product Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 Current practice Decomposition 16,672,342 4,394,693 4,988,962 4,754,572 19,787,102 795,621 849,420 1,060,301 9,879,330 4,507,990 10,039,690 574,108 636,755 883,811 ARIMA 3,112,974 1,235,788 MAPE (%) Current practice Decomposition 30. 58 34. 68 23. 50 25. 73 17. 54 42. 70 38. 36 37. 93 26. 97 23. 24 13. 14 34. 80 34. 45 28. 76 ARIMA 29. 05 13. 18 – Table 4. Product mix. Product group Product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 0. 17 0. 20 0. 26 0. 23 0. 14 1. 0 0. 53 0. 47 0. 65 0. 35 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0. 3 0. 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 276 ScienceAsia 27 (2001) Calculation of Safety Stock The safety stocks of finished products must be provided to protect against stock-out problems due to inaccurate demand forecasts. Based on the forecast errors obtained from the demand forecasting models, the amount of the safety stock is calculated using the following formula. 12 SSit = sf * ? j * ? ij (3) PRODUCTION PLANNING METHO D The production planning model is developed by initially defining decision variables and parameters, and then mathematically formulating the production planning model. Step 4 of the method requires that the model parameters be estimated and entered into the model. The model is solved for the optimal solution (Step 5). Step 6 recommends that the model parameters are updated, and the model is solved again after one planning period has passed. The production planning problem of the factory under consideration belongs to the class of multistage, multi-item, capacitated production planning model. The models in this class have been discussed extensively in. 6-11 They differ in assumptions, objectives, constraints, and solution methods. Our production planning model is a modification of the multi-stage, multi-product model discussed in Johnson and Montgomery. 6 Its objective is to minimize the total overtime and inventory holding costs. Costs of laying off and rehiring are not considered because laying off and rehiring are not allowed according to the labor union regulation. Since the production cost is time-invariant and all demands must be satisfied, the regular time production cost is thus not included in the objective function. Relevant parameters and decision variables are defined as follows: Parameters : hik = Holding cost per unit of product i at stage k (baht/unit/period) co = Cost per man-hour of overtime labor (baht/man-hour) dit = Demand forecast of product i for period t (units) aik = Processing time for one unit of product i at stage k (hours/unit) (rm)kt = Total available regular time excluding preventive maintenance and festival days at stage k for period t (man-hours) (om)kt = Total available overtime excluding preventive maintenance and festival days at stage k for period t (man-hours) W = Warehouse capacity (units) SSit = Safety stock of product i for period t (units) Iik0 = Initial inventory of product i at stage k (units) N = Total number of products (15 products) T = Total number of periods in the planning horizon (12 periods) K = Total number of stages (5 stages) where SSit = Required safety stock level of product i for period t sf = Safety factor = 1. 64 for a required service level of 95 % of the standard normal distribution ? j = Standard deviation of forecast errors of Group j. ?ij = Product mix of Product i in Group j. Since the errors of the recommended demand forecasting models are lower than those of the current practice, it is clear that SSit based on the use of the models must be lower than that determined from the current practice (assuming that the service levels of both cases are the same). Table 5 presents the required safety stocks of the current practice and the recommended forecasting models at 95 % service level. Table 5. Required safety stock of current practice and of recommended forecasting models. Safety stock (units) Product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Current practice 1,138 1,339 1,741 1,540 937 3,438 1,941 1,722 2,324 1,252 7,295 1,463 1,511 507 1,182 Recommended forecasting models 887 1,043 1,356 1,200 730 2,905 979 868 2,274 1,224 5,258 1,245 1,323 460 1,072 ScienceAsia 27 (2001) 277 Decision variables: Xikt = Quantity of product i to be produced at stage k in period t (units) Iikt = Inventory of product i at stage k at the end of period t (units) Rkt = Regular time used at stage k during period t (man-hours) Okt = Overtime used at stage k during period t (man-hours) LP model: Minimize Z = ? ? ? hik Iikt + ? ? co Okt , (4) i =1 k =1 t =1 k =1 t =1 N K T K T Eq. 7 represents the material balance constraint in Stage 3, which produces the body of threecomponent products, for Products 13, 14, and 15. Constraint (13) must be included since the finished products are very bulky and require significant warehouse space that is quite limited. Work-inprocess inventory does not require significant storage space because it can be stacked. The non-negativity constraint (16) ensures that shortages of work-inprocess inventory do not occur. Input Parameters The initial inventory of product i at stage k, Iik0, is collected from real data of work-in-process or finished good inventories on the factory floor at the beginning of the planning horizon. The inventory holding cost of product i at stage k, hik, is estimated by assuming that the annual inventory holding cost is 25% of the cost per unit of the product at the respective production stage. Since the cost per unit is constant over the planning horizon, the annual inventory holding cost is time-invariant. The factory has enough space in the warehouse to store not more than 40,000 units of finished products. The total available regular time, (rm)kt, is estimated based on the fact that the factory is normally operated 16 hours a day and six days a week, and the total available overtime, (om)kt, is calculated by assuming that the overtime could not be more than six hours a day. The overtime cost, co, is assumed to be constant throughout the planning horizon, and is estimated to be 60 Baht per man-hour. After all related parameters have been estimated and entered into the planning model, the optimal values of all decision variables are calculated using the LINGO software. The computation time takes less than one minute on a Pentium PC. Results of the Production Planning Models with Different Levels of Safety Stock In this section, two production planning models with different safety stock levels (as shown in Table 5) are solved to determine the total cost savings when the recommended forecasting models are applied in place of the current practice. The inventory holding, overtime, and total costs of both models are presented in Table 6. Based on the optimal total cost of the current practice (4,078,746 Baht per year) and the optimal total cost of the recommended forecasting models (3,541,772 Baht per year), the total cost saving is 536,974 Baht per year, or 13. 2 %. It can be also seen Subject to – Finished product requirement constraints I i 5,t? 1 + X i 5t ? I i 5t = dit – ? i, t ; k = 5, (5) Material balance between stages constraints ? i, t ; k = 4, (6) (7) ? i, t ; k = 2, (8) ? i, t ; k = 1, (9) I i 4 ,t? 1 + X i 4 t ? I i 4 t = X i 5t I i 3,t? 1 + X i 3t ? I i 3t = X i 4 t ?t ; i = 13, 14, 15; k = 3, I i 2,t? 1 + X i 2t ? I i 2t = X i 4 t I i1,t? 1 + X i1t ? I i1t = X i 2t Capacity constraints ? aik X ikt ? Rkt + Okt i= 1 N ?k , t , (10) – Available regular and overtime constraints. Rkt ? (rm) kt Okt ? ( om) kt ?k , t , ? k , t , (11) (12) – Inventory capacity of finished product constraints. ? I ikt ? W i= 1 N ?t ; k = 5, (13) – Safety stock of finished product constraints. I ikt ? SS it ?i, t ; k = 5, (14) – Non-negativity conditions X ikt ? 0 I ikt ? 0 ?i, k , t , ? i, t ; k = 1, 2, 3, 4 (15) (16) 278 ScienceAsia 27 (2001) Table 6. Comparison of the optimal costs of production planning models. Optimal costs (Baht/year) Model based on the current practice Inventory holding cost Overtime cost Total cost 2,117,051 1,961,695 4,078,746 Model based on recommended forecasting models 1,775,552 1,766,220 3,541,772 REFERENCES 1. Nahmias S (1993) Production and Operations Analysis, 2nd ed, Irwin, New York. 2. Vandaele W (1983) Applied Time Series and Box-Jenkins Models, Academic Press, New York. 3. Winters PR (1960) Forecasting Sales by Exponentially Weighted Moving Average. Management Science 6(4), 324-42. 4. Box GE and Jenkins GM (1970) Time Series Analysis, Forecasting, and Control, Holden-Day, San Francisco. 5. Makridakis S Wheelwright SC and McGee VE (1983) Forecasting Methods and Applications, 2nd ed, John Wiley Sons, New York. 6. Johnson LA and Montgomery DC (1974) Operations Research in Production Planning, Scheduling, and Inventory Control, John Wiley Sons, New York. 7. Bullington P McClain J and Thomas J (1983) Mathematical Programming Approaches to Capacity Constrained MRP Systems: Review, Formulation, and Problem Reduction. Management Science 29(10). 8. Gabbay H (1979) Multi-Stage Production Planning. Management Science 25(11), 1138-48. 9. Zahorik A Thomas J and Trigeiro W (1984) Network Programming Models for Production Scheduling in MultiStage, Multi-Item Capacitated Systems. Management Science 30(3), 308-25. 10. Lanzanuer V (1970) Production and Employment Scheduling in Multi-Stage Production Systems. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly 17(2), 193-8. 11. Schwarz LB (ed) (1981) Multi-level Production and Inventory Control Systems: Theory and Practice, North-Holland, New York. 12. Tersine RJ (1994) Principles of Inventory and Materials Management, 4th ed, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. that the optimal inventory holding cost and overtime cost in the production planning model based on the recommended forecasting models are almost equal which indicates that the model can efficiently achieve a tradeoff between both costs. Normally, the optimal decisions in the first planning period will be implemented. After the first period has passed, the new forecasts will be determined, and the model parameters will be updated. The updated model is solved again to determine the optimal decisions in the current period. This is called a rolling horizon concept. However, the details and results of this step are not shown in this paper. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The ARIMA model provides more reliable demand forecasts but it is more complicated to apply than the decomposition model. Therefore the ARIMA model should be used only when the decomposition model is inadequate. When compared against those of the current practice of the company, the errors of our selected models are considerably lower. This situation can lead to substantial reductions in safety stocks. Consequently, the lower safety stocks result in decreased inventory holding and overtime costs. The results of the production planning model are of great value to the company since the model can determine the optimal overtime work, production quantities, and inventory levels that yield the optimal total overtime and holding costs. The production planning method is more suitable than the existing one that does not consider any cost factors. Moreover, it has been proven that an application of appropriate forecasting techniques can reduce total inventory holding and overtime costs significantly. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that an improvement in demand forecasting and production planning can be achieved by replacing subjective and intuitive judgments by the systematic methods. 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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Essay Example For Students

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Essay Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a relatively new disease foundprimarily in cattle. This disease of the bovine breed was first seen in theUnited Kingdom in November 1986 by histopathological examination of affectedbrains (Kimberlin, 1993) . From the first discovery in 1986 to 1990 thisdisease developed into a large-scale epidemic in most of the United Kingdom,with very serious economic consequences (Moore, 1996). BSE primarily occurs in adult cattle of both male and female genders. The most common age at which cows may be affected is between the ages of fourand five (Blowey, 1991). Due to the fact that BSE is a neurological disease, itis characterized by many distinct symptoms: changes in mental state mad-cow,abnormalities of posture, movement, and sensation (Hunter, 1993). The durationof the clinical disease varies with each case, but most commonly lasts forseveral weeks. BSE continues to progress and is usually considered fatal(Blowey, 1991). After extensive research, the pathology of BSE was finally determined. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system that consist of a bilaterallysymmetrical, non-inflammatory vacuolation of neuronal perikarya and grey-matterneuropil was the scientists overall conclusion (Stadthalle, 1993). Theselesions are consistent with the diseases of the more common scrapie family. Without further investigation, the conclusion was made that BSE was a new memberof the scrapie family (Westgarth, 1994). Transmission of BSE is rather common throughout the cattle industry. After the incubation period of one to two years, experimental transmission wasfound possible by the injection of brain homogenates from clinical cases(Swanson, 1990). This only confirmed that BSE is caused by a scrapie-likeinfectious agent. How does the transmission become so readily available among the entireUnited Kingdom feedlot population? Studies showed that the mode of infectionwas meat and bone meal that had been incorporated into concentrated feedstuffsas a protein-rich supplement (Glausiusz, 1996). It is thought that the outbreakwas started by a scrapie infection of cattle, but the subsequent course of theepidemic was driven by the recycling of infected cattle material within thecattle population (Lyall, 1996). Although the average rate of infection is verylow, the reason why this led to such a large number of BSE cases is that much ofthe United Kingdom dairy cattle population was exposed for many, continuousyears (Kimberlin, 1993). To help control the outbreak, the British government in 1988 introduceda ban on the feeding of ruminant protein to other ruminant animals (Lacey, 1995). Such knowledge for the pathogenesis of the BSE disease shows precisely theactions that must be taken in order to control and minimize the risk ofinfection in healthy cattle around the world (Darnton, 1996). The appearance of BSE has made a sizable impact throughout much of theworld even though few countries, other than the United Kingdom, have experiencedpositive cases (Burton, 1996). The scare of an outbreak in other countries hasled to a great disruption in the trade economy, as well as other factorsconcerning each of the countrys general welfare. However, a rapid increase inthe understanding of the disease over the last four years leaves few unansweredquestions of major importance (Masood, 1996). BSE has been prevented,controlled and eradicated. As mentioned, BSE was first recognized in the United Kingdom and it isonly there that a large-scale epidemic has occurred (Burton, 1996). By the endof 1990 well over 20,000 cases of BSE had been has been confirmed in England,Scotland, and Wales (Filders, 1990). The deadly epidemic started simultaneouslyin several parts of the country and cases have been distributed over a wide areaever since (Cowell, 1996). Besides the United Kingdom, cases of BSE have occurred in the Republicof Ireland. Some of these cases were associated with the importation of liveanimals, meat, and bone meal from the United Kingdom (Cherfas, 1990). Two cases of BSE have also occurred in cattle from the country of Oman. These animals were thought to be part of a consignment of fourteen pregnantheifers imported from England in 1985. Various cases have also been confirmedin Europe, Switzerland, and France (Patel, 1996). The economic consequences of BSE in the United Kingdom have beenconsiderable. At the beginning, the only losses due to BSE were those directlyassociated with the death or slaughter of BSE infected animals (Cowell, 1996). In August 1988, a slaughter policy with part compensation was introduced to helplessen the burden on individual farmers. As the number of BSE cases increased ,and more farmers were experiencing a second case, full compensation wasintroduced in February 1990 (Moore, 1996). In 1989 alone over 8,000 suspectedand confirmed cases of BSE were slaughtered. The compensation costs for theyear were well over 2.8 million pounds and the slaughter costs amounted to 1.6million pounds (Cockburn, 1996). Kristallnacht EssayUnfortunately, the slaughter of the great majority of affected animalsbecomes necessary at an early stage because of unmanageable behavior and injuryfrom repeated falling and uncontrollable behavior (Cowell, 1996). The durationof the clinical disease, from the earliest signs to death or slaughter, canrange from under two weeks to as long as a year. The average period is aboutone to two months (Lyall, 1996). BSE resembles other members of the scrapie family in not having anygross pathological lesions associated with disease. Characteristichistopathological changes are found in the nervous system (Kimberlin, 1993). Incommon with the other diseases in the scrapie family, BSE has a distinctive non-inflammatory pathology with three main features: -The most important diagnostic lesion is the presence of bilaterally symmetrical neuronal vacuolation, in processes and in soma. -Hypertrophy of astrocytes often accompanies vacuolation. -Cerebral amyloidosis is an inconstant histopathological feature of the scrapie family of diseases. At times, only one of the above will occur in an infected animal, while moreoften a combination of the three will occur (Swanson, 1990). Unfortunately, there are no routine laboratory diagnostic tests toidentify infected cattle before the onset of clinical disease. The diagnosis ofBSE therefore depends on the recognition of clinical signs and confirmation byhistological examination of the central nervous system (Westgarth, 1994). Aclinical diagnosis can also be confirmed by simple electron microscopeobservations, biochemical detection of SAF, or the constituent protein PrP(Hunter, 1996). At present, vaccination is not an appropriate way of preventing any ofthe diseases in the scrapie family. There is no known protective immuneresponse to infection for a vaccine to enhance (Blowey, 1991). However, BSE isobviously not a highly contagious disease and it can be prevented by othersimple means because the epidemiology is also relatively simple: -Restrictions on trade in live cattle -Restrictions on trade in meat and bone meal -Sterilization of meat and bone meal -Restricted use of meat and bone meal -Minimizing exposure of the human population -Minimizing the exposure of other species (Moore, 1996)A great deal of concern, much of it avoidable, has been expressed overthe possible public health consequences of BSE. This is understanding giventhat the scrapie family of diseases include some that affect human beings (Patel,1996). As a result of research, the circumstances in which BSE might pose arisk to public health can be defined quite precisely, and simple measures havebee n devised to prevent this risk (Kimberlin, 1993). It is important toemphasize that any primary human exposure would still be across a speciesbarrier and there would be no recycling of food-born infection in the humanpopulation, as happened with kuru and with BSE in cattle (Patel, 1996). Thelogical way to address this risk is to make sure that exposure to BSE is kept toa bare minimum. There are two scenarios for the future course of BSE. The first is thatBSE, like TME and kuru, is a dead-end disease. If this is true and meat andbone meal was the sole source of the infection, then removing this source wouldbe sufficient for the eventual eradification of BSE from the United Kingdom(Hager, 1996). The alternative scenario is that there are natural routes oftransmission of BSE and that the outbreak could turn into an endemic infectionof cattle the way scrapie is in sheep (Burton, 1996). To sustain BSE infectionin the cattle population requires that each breeding cow is replaced by at leastone infected female calf, which then transmits infection to at least one of heroffspring. For BSE to become an endemic, the number of infected cattle wouldneed to increase by horizontal spread as seen in scrapie (Masood, 1996). Theessential prerequisite for controlling such a deadly disease is through goodbreeding and movement records which are currently being compiled in the UnitedKi ngdom following recent legislation (Stadthalle, 1993). Meanwhile theprecautionary measures to safeguard other species, including human beings, arealready in place and refined to meet todays needs. Category: Science

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Frees Black Success through Hard Work or Af Essay Example For Students

Frees: Black Success through Hard Work or Af Essay firmative Action? affirmative argumentative persuasive Riches through Hard Work or Affirmative Action? In recent years Affirmative Action has become an issue of great interest. Affirmative Action, also known as Preferential Hiring, which was devised to create harmony between the different races and sexes, has divided the lines even more. Supporters on both sides seem fixed in their positions and often refuse to listen to the other groups platform. In this essay, the recipients of preferential hiring will be either black or female, and the position in question will be a professorship on the university level. The hirings in question are cases that involve several candidates, all roughly equal in their qualifications (including experience, education, people skills, etc. ), with the only difference being race and/or sex. What we have here is a case of predetermined preference. The two candidates in question are equal in all ways, except race. The black applicant is selected, not because of skills or qualifications (in that case the white man would have provided the same result), but for his skin color. This seems to be blatant discrimination, but many believe it is justified. Some feel retribution for years of discrimination is reason enough, but that issue will be discussed later. First, lets focus on why this is not a solution to creating an unbiased society. Martin Luther King Jr. had a dream: I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. He desired a world without discrimination, without prejudice, and without stereotypes. The fundamental lesson years of discrimination should have taught is that to give anyone preference based on skin color, sex, or religious beliefs is, in one word, wrong. As Martin Luther King Jr. stated, judgment based on skin color must not exist. All preferential hiring does is keep judgments based on skin color alive. Race and sex should not be issues in todays society, yet preferential hiring continues to make these factors issues by treating minorities as a group rather than as individuals. More importantly preferential hiring may actually fuel, rather than extinguish, feelings of racial hostility. Applying the concept of preferential hiring to another situation may help elucidate its shortcomings. A party of white men and a party of black men both arrive at a restaurant at the same time and only one table is free. The headwaiter can only seat one party and must make a decision. According to preferential hiring theory it is necessary to seat the black party first, since historically blacks have been discriminated against when seated in restaurants. In another situation, a white man and a black man are both equidistant from the last seat on the bus. Both men are the same age, have no medical problems, and are equal in all ways except skin color. Should the black man get the seat since in the past black men have been discriminated against? We could continue this practice for several centuries before the debt we owe for depriving blacks of a seat on the bus would be paid. Perhaps these examples are invalid. It could be said that jobs are a different issue. They help define social status and provide economic well-being. They might even boost self-confidence, something that discrimination has stolen. Two points must be considered before moving any further. First, blacks may learn better from a black, and women may learn better from a woman. Second, hiring women and blacks will provide role models for others. .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .postImageUrl , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:hover , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:visited , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:active { border:0!important; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:active , .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892 .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6a2cfcbc52d70268a081e0a6bc904892:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Organization Need People or People Need Organization Essay The first point Thomson quickly concedes as likely to be false. Discussion about the second point however is required, and will, in effect, serve to negate the first point as well. First, lets create a character, Bill. Bill is grossly overweight and unattractive. Studies have shown that many employers discriminate (whether subconsciously or not), against both overweight and unattractive individuals. Unfortunately for Bill, he fits into both categories. His inability to land a job reflective of his abilities, coupled with years of public humiliation through jokes made at his expense, has destroyed his self-esteem. This has caused .